Protection Against Surprise Medical Bills
When you see a doctor or other healthcare provider, you may owe certain out-of-pocket costs, such as a copayment, coinsurance and/or a deductible. You may have other costs or have to pay the entire bill if you see a provider or visit a healthcare facility that isn’t in your health plan’s network.
Out-of-network describes providers and facilities that haven’t signed a contract with your health plan. Out-of-network providers may be permitted to bill you for the difference between what your plan agreed to pay and the full amount charged for a service. This is called balance billing. This amount is likely more than in-network costs for the same service and might not count toward your annual out-of-pocket limit.
Surprise billing is an unexpected balance bill. This can happen when you can’t control who is involved in your care — like when you have an emergency or when you schedule a visit at an in-network facility but are unexpectedly treated by an out-of-network provider.
Patients with health insurance are protected from balance/surprise billing for emergency services and certain services at an in-network hospital or ambulatory surgical center.
- Emergency Services: If you have an emergency medical condition and get emergency services from an out-of-network provider or facility, the most the provider or facility may bill you is your plan’s in-network cost-sharing amount (such as copayments and coinsurance). You cannot be balance billed for these emergency services. This includes services you may get after you’re in stable condition unless you give written consent and give up your protections not to be balanced billed for these post-stabilization services.
In-network Hospital or Ambulatory Surgical Center: When you get services from an in-network hospital or ambulatory surgical center, certain providers there may be out-of-network. In these cases, the most those providers may bill you is your plan’s in-network cost-sharing amount. This applies to emergency medicine, anesthesia, pathology, radiology, laboratory, neonatology, assistant surgeon, hospitalist, or intensivist services. These providers cannot balance bill you and may not ask you to give up your protections not to be balance billed.
If you get other services at these in-network facilities, out-of-network providers cannot balance bill you, unless you give written consent and give up your protections.
You’re never required to give up your protection from balance billing. You also aren’t required to get care out-of-network. You can choose a provider or facility in your plan’s network.
When balance billing isn’t allowed, you are only responsible for paying your share of the cost like the copayments, coinsurance and deductibles you would pay if the provider or facility was in-network. Your health plan will pay out-of-network providers and facilities directly.
Your health plan generally must:
- Cover emergency services without requiring you to get approval for services in advance (prior authorization);
- Cover emergency services by out-of-network providers;
- Base what you owe the provider or facility (cost-sharing) on what it would pay an in-network provider or facility and show that amount in your explanation of benefits;
- Count any amount you pay for emergency services or out-of-network services toward your deductible and out-of-pocket limit.
Good Faith Estimate for Patients Without Health Insurance
As a patient without health insurance, you have the right to receive a good faith estimate explaining how much your medical care will cost.
- Under the law, healthcare providers need to give patients who don’t have insurance or who are not using insurance an estimate of the bill for medical items and services.
- You have the right to receive a good faith estimate for the total expected cost of any non-emergency items or services. This includes related costs like medical tests, prescription drugs, equipment and hospital fees.
- Make sure your health care provider gives you a good faith estimate in writing at least one business day before your medical service or item. You can also ask your healthcare provider, and any other provider you choose, for a good faith estimate before you schedule an item or service.
- If you receive a bill that is at least $400 more than your good faith estimate, you can dispute the bill.
- Make sure to save a copy or picture of your good faith estimate.