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immunity protects both you and your fetus. After you
have been immunized (vaccinated) against or infected by a virus or bacteria,
your body develops an immunity to that infectious agent. Full immunity can protect you from future infection, either for a lifetime or
a limited period. Partial immunity strengthens your
body's ability to fight that infection.
Before you become
pregnant, be sure to review your immunization history with your doctor. Depending on
the virus or bacteria, having had an immunization in childhood may not
guarantee that you now have full immunity. To
help ensure a healthy pregnancy, make sure that you are immune to the following before conceiving:
Rubella, measles, mumps, and chickenpox can harm a growing
fetus. They can cause birth defects, fetal death, or
premature birth. Chickenpox can also be dangerous for you
when you're pregnant.
If you don't know whether you're immune to
rubella, measles, or chickenpox, talk to your doctor about a blood test for
antibodies to that virus. If you aren't immune, have
the vaccination before becoming pregnant. To allow time for your body to
develop antibodies to the virus, keep using birth control for at least 4 weeks
after the vaccination.1
Flu and whooping cough are dangerous diseases for newborns and young infants. The flu can also be dangerous for you when you're pregnant. Getting the flu and Tdap vaccines during pregnancy is considered safe for your fetus. And these vaccines
protect both you and your newborn. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends:
you are not immune to rubella, measles, or chickenpox,
your doctor will recommend that you not have the vaccine until after
childbirth. Instead, you must take every precaution to prevent exposure to
these viruses while you're pregnant. Vaccination is safe for you and your baby
If you are at risk of being exposed to
polio, meningitis, or pneumococcal bacteria, your doctor may recommend that you get vaccinated against these infections during pregnancy.
If you are age 26 or younger and you did not already get the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine before you became pregnant, your doctor may suggest this vaccine after pregnancy.
been eliminated from all places in the world except for research labs. Smallpox
vaccine is not recommended during pregnancy because of the small chance that it
can affect you or the fetus. But risks related to the vaccine are not as great
as the risk of having smallpox infection. So, in the unlikely event that you
have or may have been exposed to smallpox, you would be vaccinated to reduce
the severity of this life-threatening illness.
Your children should receive their immunizations on schedule. Having your child vaccinated against diseases
does not increase your risk for becoming infected with them. You do not need to
speed up or delay your child's immunizations.
For more information, see the topic Immunizations or
see the topics related to the specific illnesses mentioned above.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Guidelines for Vaccinating Pregnant Women. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/preg-guide.htm.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2010). Influenza vaccination during pregnancy. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 468. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 116(4): 1006–1007.
February 15, 2013
John Pope, MD - Pediatrics & William Atkinson, MD, MPH - Public Health and Preventive Medicine
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