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biopsy is done using a needle inserted between
two of the right lower ribs to remove a sample of liver tissue. The tissue
sample is sent to a laboratory and looked at under a microscope to see if there
are any liver problems.
A liver biopsy may be done when liver
blood tests are abnormal. It may be done when an
ultrasound, or a
computed tomography (CT) scan shows a problem with the
liver. A liver biopsy can also be done to find the cause of
jaundice or to check on
hepatitis, or liver cancer.
liver biopsy may be done to:
Before you have a liver biopsy, tell
your doctor if you:
If you take insulin, check with your doctor about what you
need to take on the day of your test.
For a liver biopsy, you will
be asked to sign a consent form. Talk to your doctor about any
concerns you have regarding the need for the test, its risks, how it will be
done, or what the results will mean. To help you understand the importance of
this test, fill out the
medical test information form(What is a PDF document?).
Arrange for someone to drive you home
after the test because you may be given a
sedative to help you relax.
You will have
blood tests done before the liver biopsy to see whether you have any bleeding
or blood clotting problems. You may also have an ultrasound test or CT scan of
the liver to check the best place to insert the biopsy needle.
not eat or drink for 10 hours before the test unless your doctor says it is okay. You will empty your bladder
before the test.
A liver biopsy is done by a
surgeon in a clinic or a hospital. A liver biopsy is
often done by a radiologist using ultrasound or a CT scan to help guide the
biopsy needle. When cirrhosis of the liver or a cancer is suspected, a liver
biopsy may be done during a
You will need to take off
all or most of your clothes. You will be given a cloth or paper gown to use
during the test.
Before the test, you may be given a sedative
through a vein (IV) in your arm. The sedative will help you relax and
remain still. During the test, you will lie on your back with your right arm
resting under or above your head and your head turned to your left. Your doctor
may tap on your chest and belly to find your liver or he or she may use
Your doctor will mark a spot between two of your right
lower ribs where the biopsy needle will be inserted. The site will be cleaned
with a special soap and draped with sterile towels. The doctor will give you a
medicine (local anesthetic) to numb the area where the biopsy
needle will be inserted.
You may be asked to take a deep breath,
blow all the air out, and then hold your breath while the biopsy needle is
being inserted and withdrawn. This will take only a few seconds. Holding your
breath lowers the chance that the needle will go in your lung since the lungs
are very close to the liver. It is important to remain still during the few
seconds it takes for the doctor to collect the tissue sample. The doctor may
take another tissue sample from the same spot, but from a different
See a picture of the
placement of the liver biopsy needle.
As soon as the doctor removes
the needle, you can breathe normally. A bandage will be put on the puncture
site. The test generally takes 15 to 30 minutes.
You will rest in
bed and lie on your right side for 2 to 6 hours after the test. Your pulse,
blood pressure, and temperature will be checked often after the biopsy.
You can go home if you have no problems after the test. You may eat your
regular diet. But unless your doctor tells you it is okay, do not take aspirin,
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, blood thinners, or antiplatelet
medicines for one week after the biopsy. You may do your regular activities,
but do not do strenuous activities or heavy lifting until your doctor says it
You may feel a brief sting or burn when
the numbing medicine (anesthetic) goes in your skin. When the biopsy needle is
inserted, you may again feel a sharp pain for a few seconds.
may feel deep pressure and a dull pain in your belly when the biopsy needle is
inserted. After the anesthetic wears off, you may feel a dull pain in your
right shoulder. This is called
referred pain and generally goes away in about 12
hours. You can take a nonprescription medicine, such as acetaminophen
(Tylenol), for the pain. Call your doctor if your pain gets worse or lasts
longer than 2 days.
A small amount of bleeding from the biopsy
site can be expected. Ask your doctor how much drainage to expect.
Serious problems from a liver biopsy are rare. Problems can include:
After the test, call 911 or other emergency services immediately if you develop:
After the test, call your doctor immediately if you
liver biopsy is done using a needle inserted
between two of the right lower ribs to remove a sample of liver tissue. The
tissue sample is sent to a laboratory and looked at under a microscope to see
if there are any liver problems.
Test results are generally ready in 2 to 4 days. If tests
are done to find infections, it may take several weeks for the results to be
The liver tissue looks normal under a microscope. No
signs of infection, inflammation, cancer, or cirrhosis are present.
Abnormal cells or liver tissue are present. This may be
caused by an infection such as
hepatitis, liver disease such as cirrhosis, or cancer. If liver cancer is present, the biopsy can help find the
type of cancer. If
hepatitis is present, the test can be used to see the
chance of developing cirrhosis. Test results may also show the severity of
Occasionally, a liver biopsy may not provide helpful results because not enough tissue is sampled
to make a clear diagnosis.
Other Works Consulted
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. (2004). Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures, 4th ed.
Fischbach FT, Dunning MB III, eds. (2004).
Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests, 7th ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Pagana KD, Pagana TJ (2010). Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby.
December 13, 2011
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Michel M. Murr, MD - General Surgery, Bariatric Surgery
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