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Complications of Gallstones

Topic Overview

Gallstones may cause complications, including:

  • Obstruction of the common bile duct.
  • Inflammation or infection of the gallbladder (acute cholecystitis).
  • Inflammation or infection of the common bile duct (cholangitis), which can occur when gallstones get stuck in the common bile duct. Though rare, this can damage the liver or spread infection.
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).

Overall, about 10 to 15 out of 100 people with gallstones have them in the common bile duct. Your chances of getting gallstones in your common bile duct increase as you get older. As many as 25 out of 100 elderly people with gallstones have them in the common bile duct.1

Less common complications can include:

  • Severe infection with pus filling the gallbladder (empyema).
  • An abnormal connection (fistula) between the gallbladder and small intestine.
  • A large gallstone blocking the small intestine (gallstone ileus).
  • A hole in the gallbladder (perforation).
  • Gallbladder cancer.

Doctors seldom recommend surgery to remove gallstones that are not causing symptoms if the only purpose is to prevent gallbladder cancer.

Related Information

References

Citations

  1. Paumgartner G, Greenberger NJ (2012). Gallstone disease. In NJ Greenberger et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endoscopy, 2nd ed., pp. 578–588. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Arvydas D. Vanagunas, MD - Gastroenterology
Last Revised July 10, 2013

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